The Power of Regenerative Exosome Therapy
Table of contents
When physicians passions are ignited by a treatment you know it must be impressive and exosomes have got the integrative and functional medical community on fire. Exosomes are the cutting edge of modern healthcare treatment. Though they have been known and studied for decades, the scientific papers written on exosomes have gone from 800 to over 11,000 in the last 10 years and have clearly demonstrated the incredible healing and regenerative abilities of exosomes in a multitude of applications such as trauma, cardiovascular, cancer and cancer treatment delivery, cancer bio-markers, age management, wound healing, auto-immune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, bone and tissue regeneration, allergic disease and much more.
Exosomes are tiny lipid vesicles that transport proteins and genetic information between both neighboring and distant cells. They are essentially the signaling mechanism to tell the cells what to do.
The Technical Functions of Exosomes
Extracellular vesicles (EV’s) consist of exosomes and microvesicles, which are released directly from the cell membrane. EV’s can mediate cell–cell communication and are involved in many processes, including immune signaling, angiogenesis, stress response, senescence, proliferation, and cell differentiation. EV’s are involved in restoring tissue and organ damage, and may partially explain the paracrine effects observed in stem cell-based therapeutic approaches. The function and content of EV’s may also harbor information that can be used in tissue engineering, in which paracrine signaling is employed to modulate cell recruitment, differentiation, and proliferation.(1)
GROWTH FACTORS AND CYTOKINES
Growth factors are proteins that may act locally or systemically to affect the growth of cells in several ways. Various cell activities, including division, are influenced by growth factors. Cytokines are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins that are produced by numerous cell types and are responsible for regulating the immune response, inflammation, tissue remodeling and cellular differentiation. Target cells of growth factors and cytokines are mesenchymal, epithelial and endothelial cells. These molecules frequently have overlapping activities and can act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. A complex network of growth factors and cytokines guides cellular differentiation and regeneration in all organs and tissues.(2)
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Signaling molecules known as paracrine factors diffuse over a relatively short distance (local action), as opposed to endocrine factors (hormones which travel considerably longer distances via the circulatory system), juxtacrine interactions, and autocrine signaling.(3)
(1) Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Roles in Regenerative Medicine
Olivier G. De Jong, Bas W. M. Van Balkom, Raymond M. Schiffelers, Carlijn V. C. Bouten, Marianne C. Verhaar. Front Immunol. 2014; 5: 608.
(2) Effie Ioannidou, “ Therapeutic Modulation of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Regenerative Medicine”, Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006) 12: 2397.
(3) U.S. National Library of Medicine, G04.085.600, Paracrine Communication, Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment.